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Journal Article 
Arsenic incorporation in synthetic struvite (NH4MgPO4•6H2O): A synchrotron XAS and single-crystal EPR study 
Lin, J; Chen, N; Pan, Y 
In Press 
Environmental Science and Technology
ISSN: 0013-936X
EISSN: 1520-5851 
Struvite, a common biomineral and increasingly important fertilizer recovered from wastewater treatment plants, is capable of sequestering a wide range of heavy metals and metalloids, including arsenic. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICPMS) analyses and microbeam synchrotron X-ray flurorescence (μ-SXRF) mapping show that struvite formed under ambient conditions contains up to 547±15 ppm As and that the uptake of As is controlled by pH. Synchrotron As K-edge XANES spectra measured at 20 K show that As5+ is the predominant oxidation state in struvite, irrespective of Na2HAsO4•7H2O or NaAsO2 as the source for As. Modeling of As K-edge EXAFS data suggest that local structural distortion associated with the substitution of As5+ for P5+ in struvite reaches up to 3.75 Å. Single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of gamma-ray-irradiated struvite disclose five [AsO3]2- radicals and one [AsO4]2- radical. These arsenic-centered oxyradicals are all readily attributed to form from diamagnetic [AsO4]3- precursors during irradiation, providing further support for exclusive incorporation and local structural expansion beyond the first shell of As5+ at the P site in struvite. 
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