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Journal Article 
Marine invertebrates as bioindicators of organotin contaminants: Immuno- and embryotoxicity 
Cima, F; Marin, MG; Da Ros, L; Ballarin, L 
Annali di Chimica
ISSN: 0003-4592
EISSN: 1612-8877 
BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. The main purpose Of this research is to detect and select bioindicators which may be helpful for monitoring and controlling coastal ecosystem quality with special attention to the risk of poisoning by toxic organotin compounds. A few species of marine invertebrates have been chosen, i.e., tunicates, molluscs and echinoderms, to test their reliability as indicators. The immunotoxicity test applied here is based on the analysis of the effects on in vitro yeast phagocytosis by haemocytes. In addition, the embryotoxicity test examines the effects of these compounds on various embryonic developmental stages beginning from post-fertilisation. The obtained results suggest that the effects of these environmental pollutants: i) are concentration-dependent, ii) are strictly related to their lipophilic properties, iii) influence cell calcium homeostasis, and iv) inhibit mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.