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Journal Article 
Hemimellitene (1,2,3-trimethylbenzene) in the liver, lung, kidney, and blood, and dimethylbenzoic acid isomers in the liver, lung, kidney and urine of rats after single and repeated inhalation exposure to hemimellitene 
Świercz, R; Majcherek, W; Wąsowicz, W 
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
ISSN: 1232-1087
EISSN: 1896-494X 
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study has been to explore hemimellitene distribution in blood, liver, lung and kidney as well as toxicokinetics of its elimination from blood of rats after single and repeated inhalation exposure to this compound. Tissue distribution and excretion with urine of 2-dimethylbenzoic acids (2,3-DMBA and 2,6-DMBA) were also evaluated.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male outbred IMP:WIST rats were used in the experiment. The animals were exposed to hemimellitene vapors at the nominal concentration of 25 ppm, 100 ppm, and 250 ppm in the dynamic inhalation chambers for 6 h for single exposure purpose and for 4 weeks (6 h/day for 5 day/week) for repeated exposure purposes.

RESULTS: Significantly lower concentrations of hemimellitene were detected in the blood and tissues of animals after repeated inhalation exposure of animals to hemimellitene vapors, which points to reduced retention of the chemical in the lungs of the experimental rats. The trend of hemimellitene elimination from the blood depended solely on exposure intensity, irrespective of exposure time, both after single and repeated exposure. As regards the 2 determined hemimellitene metabolites, the major trend of the metabolic transformation involved formation of 2,3-DMBA.

CONCLUSIONS: The significantly higher urinary 2,3-DMBA concentration after repeated exposure shows that hemimellitene induces enzymatic processes in the rat.