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Journal Article 
Effects of gender on the association of urinary phthalate metabolites with thyroid hormones in children: a prospective cohort study in Taiwan 
Weng, TI; Chen, MH; Lien, GW; Chen, PS; Lin, JC; Fang, CC; Chen, PC 
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ISSN: 1661-7827
EISSN: 1660-4601 
Phthalates are considered endocrine disruptors. Our study assessed the gender-specific effects of phthalate exposure on thyroid function in children. In total, 189 Taiwanese children were enrolled in the study. One-spot urine and blood samples were collected for analyzing 12 phthalate metabolites in urine and thyroid hormones. The association between urinary phthalate metabolites and serum thyroid hormones was determined using a generalized linear model with a log link function; the children were categorized into groups for analysis according to the 33rd and 66th percentiles. The data were stratified according to gender and adjusted for a priori defined covariates. In girls, a positive association existed between urinary di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites (mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate) and free thyroxine (T4). In boys, urinary dibutyl phthalate (DBP) metabolites (mono-i-butyl phthalate and mono-n-butyl phthalate) were positively associated with free triiodothyronine (T3). After categorizing each exposure into three groups, urinary DEHP metabolites were positively associated with free T3 levels in boys. Our results suggested that DEHP is associated with free T4 in girls and that DBP is associated with free T3 in boys. Higher DEHP metabolite concentrations exerted larger effects on free T3 in boys. These results reveal the gender-specific relationships between phthalate metabolites and thyroid hormones. 
Child; Endocrine Disruptors/analysis/urine; Environmental Exposure/adverse effects/analysis; Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects/analysis; Phthalic Acids/analysis/metabolism/urine; Prospective Studies; Sex Characteristics; Thyroid Function Tests; Thyroid Gland/drug effects; Thyroid Hormones/urine; children; gender; phthalates; thyroid hormones 
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