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3858492 
Journal Article 
First report of perfluoroalkyl substances in South African Odonata 
Lesch, V; Bouwman, H; Kinoshita, A; Shibata, Y 
2017 
Yes 
Chemosphere
ISSN: 0045-6535
EISSN: 1879-1298 
175 
153-160 
English 
Perfluorinated substances are global and ubiquitous pollutants. However, very little is known about these substances in invertebrates, and even less in terrestrial invertebrates in particular. We analysed adult male dragonflies from six sites in South Africa for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluro-n-undecanoic acid (PFUnA), perfluoro-n-dodecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). PFOS was detected in all individuals, with less quantifiable occurrences of the other substances. The dragonflies from the three northern sites located in farming areas had significantly lower ΣPFASs concentrations than the southern sites located closer to industrial areas (median ΣPFASs of 0.32 ng/g wm (wet mass) for North, and 9.3 ng/g wm for South). All substances except PFOS occurred at similar concentrations at all six sites when quantifiable, but PFOS dominated in the Southern sites. The highest median concentration was from Bloemhof Dam (ΣPFASs = 21 ng/g wm), which is known to be polluted by PFOS. Perfluorinated substances are not known to be manufactured in South Africa, therefore the residues detected are likely to have been derived from imported products. Odonata play a significant role in freshwater ecology. Any impacts on these aquatic and aerial predators are likely to have effects on aquatic and associated ecosystems. Further studies are required over a much larger geographic region and to investigate sources. 
PFOS; Odonata; Dragonflies; PFASs; South Africa 
• ^Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
     PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
          Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFDoA (307-55-1)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFUnA (2058-94-8)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFDA (335-76-2)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFNA (375-95-1)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFHxA (307-24-4)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFHxS (355-46-4)
          Literature search
               Pubmed
               WOS
• PFDA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Title and Abstract Screening
          Excluded
• PFDoA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• PFHxS
     Literature Search
          PubMed
          Toxline
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• PFNA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          Toxline
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     PFNA May 2019 Update
          Web of Science
          Pubmed
          Toxnet
     PFNA Literature Search pre-2019
          WOS
• PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
     Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Literature Search Update (2013-2019)
          PubMed
          WOS
• PFUnA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic