Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been observed in various environmental matrices globally in recent years. In this study, the levels, spatial distribution tendencies, and partitioning characteristics of the target 12 PFAAs were investigated in water and sediment from the coastal regions of Shandong peninsula in China, and two sediment core samples were also collected to study the vertical and historical variation of PFAAs. The ranges (means) of total PFAA concentrations were 23.69-148.48 ng/L (76.11 ng/L) in the water and 1.30-11.17 ng/g (5.93 ng/g) in the surface sediment, respectively. Among the target 12 PFAAs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant component in water, followed by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA). PFOS, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and PFOA were the dominant components in sediment. For their spatial distribution, higher levels of PFAAs were found at the locations close to much developed cities. The PFAA concentrations showed an overall decreasing tendency with depth increase in the two sediment cores, which indicates that the extent of PFAAs pollution is aggravating trend in recent years. Results of the partition coefficient (K d ) show that the compounds with longer carbon chains (C ≥ 7) generally had higher K d values, which suggest that long-chain PFAAs are prone to be adsorbed by sediment. In addition, the Log K d of PFHxA, PFOA, and PFOS were significantly and positively correlated to the salinity of the water. The results of risk assessment suggest appreciable risk of PFAAs to the local ecosystem.