OBJECTIVE: To explore the level of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and their precursors in 18 market milk samples of China.
METHOD: The 18 milk samples were selected in 8 provinces of China, including Ningxia, Neimeng, Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi, Chongqing, and Guangdong. 8 PFASs and 11 PFAS precursors were measured by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadruple mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The dietary exposure assessment was made.
RESULTS: Three PFASs were detected in milk samples which were PFOA, PFUdA, and PFOS. The numbers of detected samples were 5, 12, and 14, respectively. Their concentration ranges were < Limit of determination (LOD)-431.94 pg/ml, < LOD -15.95 pg/ml and < LOD -126.98 pg/ml, respectively. Three PFAS precursors were also found above the detection limits, namely, 4:2 FTS, 6:2 FTS, and 6:2 diPAP. Only one sample was detected 4:2 FTS at the concentration of 3.75 pg/ml. The detected samples of 6:2 FTS and 6:2 diPAP were 12 and 3. Their concentration ranges were < LOD -2.49 pg/ml and < LOD -24.56 pg/ml, respectively. The ranges estimated daily intake of PFOA and PFOS of the detected samples were 2.49 × 10⁻³-405.89 × 10⁻³ ng · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹ and 36.10 × 10⁻³-119.32 × 10⁻³ ng · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that there were different contamination levels of PFASs and their precursors in the 18 market milk produced from different regions in china. The estimated daily intake of PFASs from the milk in our study were far below the tolerable daily intake set by European Union (PFOS: 150 ng · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹, PFOA: 1 500 ng · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹).