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Journal Article 
Standardized Procedure for the Simultaneous Determination of the Matrix Effect, Recovery, Process Efficiency, and Internal Standard Association 
Bienvenu, JF; Provencher, G; Bélanger, P; Bérubé, R; Dumas, P; Gagné, S; Gaudreau, É; Fleury, N 
Analytical Chemistry
ISSN: 0003-2700
EISSN: 1520-6882 
The matrix effects (MEs) on the quantification of an analyte can be significant and should not be neglected during development and validation of an analytical method. According to this premise, we developed a standardized procedure based on a set of six tests performed on six different sample matrices to detect and characterize the effects of the matrix for single and multiple analytes methods. The link between the matrix effect, recovery, process efficiency, accuracy, precision, and calibration curve was underscored by calculations performed with peak areas, ratios of standard/internal standard peak area, and concentrations. The terms instrumental ME and global ME were introduced, and the term recovery was subdivided for clarity. The test accounts for the presence of ubiquitous and endogenous analytes through background subtraction. The results showed the necessity for using samples with an original concentration in the same range and that the concentration selected for the addition had a definite impact on the results. The use of six-sample matrices provided a standard deviation on the results, and this information could be inserted in a method performance result to show precision. The tool also allows for testing of different analytes/internal standard combinations, which helps with the selection of the association with minimum MEs. A UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of several phthalate metabolites in urine was developed and validated with this test. This methodology responds to a scientific need for homogeneity, clarity, and understanding of the results and facilitates the decision-making process while lowering the required costs and time. 
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