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Journal Article 
A novel automatic flow method with direct-injection photometric detector for determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in wastewater and freshwater samples 
Koronkiewicz, S; Trifescu, M; Smoczynski, L; Ratnaweera, H; Kalinowski, S 
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
ISSN: 0167-6369
EISSN: 1573-2959 
The novel automatic flow system, direct-injection detector (DID) integrated with multi-pumping flow system (MPFS), dedicated for the photometric determination of orthophosphates in wastewater and freshwater samples is for the first time described. All reagents and the sample were injected simultaneously, in counter-current into the reaction-detection chamber by the system of specially selected for this purpose solenoid micro-pumps. The micro-pumps provided good precision and accuracy of the injected volumes. For the determination of orthophosphates, the molybdenum blue method was employed. The developed method can be used to detect orthophosphate in the range 0.1-12 mg L-1, with the repeatability (RSD) about 2.2% at 4 mg L-1 and a very high injection throughput of 120 injections h-1. It was possible to achieve a very small consumption of reagents (10 μL of ammonium molybdate and 10 μL of ascorbic acid) and sample (20 μL). The volume of generated waste was only 440 μL per analysis. The method has been successfully applied, giving a good accuracy, to determination of orthophosphates in complex matrix samples: treated wastewater, lake water and reference sample of groundwater. The developed system is compact, small in both size and weight, requires 12 V in supply voltage, which are desirable for truly portable equipment used in routine analysis. The simplicity of the system should result in its greater long-time reliability comparing to other flow methods previously described. 
• Molybdenum
     Litsearch 2018