The inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase is a clinical strategy for the treatment of type II diabetes, and herbal medicines have been reported to credibly alleviate hyperglycemia. Our previous study has reported some constituents from plant or herbal sources targeted to α-glucosidase and α-amylase via molecular docking and enzymatic measurement, but the hypoglycemic potencies in cell system and mice have not been validated yet. This study was aimed to elucidate the hypoglycemic efficacy of docking selected compounds in cell assay and oral glucose and starch tolerance tests of mice. All test compounds showed the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity in Caco-2 cells. The decrease of blood sugar levels of test compounds in 30 min and 60 min of mice after OGTT and OSTT, respectively and the decreased glucose levels of test compounds were significantly varied in acarbose. Taken altogether, in vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that selected natural compounds (curcumin, antroquinonol, HCD, docosanol, tetracosanol, rutin, and actinodaphnine) via molecular docking were confirmed as potential candidates of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitors for treating diabetes.