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Journal Article 
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the blood of two colobine monkey species from China: Occurrence and exposure pathways 
Cui, Q; Shi, F; Pan, Y; Zhang, H; Dai, J 
Science of the Total Environment
ISSN: 0048-9697
EISSN: 1879-1026 
Per-/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), which are widely used in industrial and commercial products, have been identified as global and ubiquitous pollutants. Despite this, limited data are available regarding the impacts of PFAS exposure and intake in non-human primates. Here, we report for the first time on the occurrence of PFASs in the blood and dietary sources of two rare and endangered primate species, namely, the golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) and Francois' leaf monkey (Trachypithecus francoisi). Results showed that perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were dominant and found at the highest proportions in the blood of both species at the four study sites. The ∑PFAS levels in blood samples from captive golden snub-nosed monkeys in Tongling Zoo (mean: 2.51 ng/mL) and Shanghai Wild Zoo (3.52 ng/mL) near urbanized areas were one order of magnitude higher than the levels in wild monkeys from Shennongjia Nature Reserve (0.27 ng/mL). Furthermore, significant age positive relationships for perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonates (6:2 Cl-PFESA) were observed in both golden snub-nosed monkeys at Shanghai Wild Zoo and Francois' leaf monkeys at Wuzhou Breeding Center. In addition, PFAS levels in frequently consumed food and drinking water were analyzed for Francois' leaf monkeys. Results showed that tree leaves accounted for the highest percentage of total daily intake of PFASs, especially PFOA, thus highlighting tree leaf consumption as a primary PFAS exposure route for this species. Overall, however, dietary exposure to PFASs was of relatively low risk to Francois' leaf monkey health. 
PFASs; Colobine monkeys; Blood; Tree leaves; Estimated daily intake 
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