Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFHxA (307-24-4)


327 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in agricultural environment, vegetables, and fruits in regions influenced by a fluorine-chemical industrial park in China

Authors: Li, P; Oyang, X; Zhao, Y; Tu, T; Tian, X; Li, L; Zhao, Y; Li, J; Xiao, Z (2019) Chemosphere 225:659-667. HERO ID: 5079816

[Less] The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in vegetables and fruits, as well as agricultural . . . [More] The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in vegetables and fruits, as well as agricultural environment, was investigated in the downstream regions of Changshu fluorine-chemical industrial park (CFCIP) in China. Twenty-one PFCs were analyzed in irrigation water, agricultural soil, typical vegetables, and fruits, with the maximum total PFC concentrations of 369.9 ng/L, 64.7 ng/g dw, 11.5 ng/g ww, and 10.5 ng/g ww, respectively. Short-chained perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), and perfluorohexanoic acid were the dominant PFCs in terms of their concentrations and detection frequency. PFCs in irrigation water and agricultural soils showed a decreasing trend with increasing distance from CFCIP, while this pattern was not observed in agricultural products. The predominant compounds varied in different vegetables and fruits. Simultaneous bioaccumulation of PFBA and PFOA was found in melons and solanaceous species and pears. Leafy vegetables and grapes exhibited high bioaccumulation of PFOA and PFBA, respectively. Health risk assessment by calculating estimated daily intake showed that no direct risk was caused by the consumption of vegetables and fruits for the residents in the investigated regions. However, the tolerable weekly intake of PFOA exceeded the established thresholds for the adult residents. A comprehensive health assessment of the dietary exposure of PFCs, including all exposure pathways, in fluorine-chemical industrial park-impacted regions is needed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of fluorescent dissolved organic matters (FDOMs) on perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in lake and river water

Authors: Liu, WX; He, W; Wu, JY; Wu, WJ; Xu, FL (2019) Science of the Total Environment 666:598-607. HERO ID: 5080217

[Less] This study presents the effects of fluorescent dissolved organic matters (FDOM) on perfluoroalkyl acids . . . [More] This study presents the effects of fluorescent dissolved organic matters (FDOM) on perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in western Lake Chaohu and its inflow rivers. The surface water samples from the 27 sites in western Lake Chaohu and its inflow rivers were collected in March and September 2013. The contents of PFAAs and the FDOM in the water samples were measured by a high-performance liquid chromatograph - mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS) and by a fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. The temporal-spatial distributions of PFAAs and FDOM, as well as their interrelationships, were investigated. Eleven PFAA components were detected, and the mean concentration of total PFAAs (TPFAAs) in western Lake Chaohu and its inflow rivers were 12.93 ± 5.19 ng/L and 11.84 ± 9.50 ng/L, respectively. PFOA was the predominant contaminant in two regions (7.13 ± 3.07 ng/L and 4.30 ± 2.14 ng/L) followed by PFHxA (1.72 ± 0.80 ng/L and 1.42 ± 1.41 ng/L) and PFBA (1.44 ± 0.78 ng/L and 1.37 ± 0.78 ng/L). The mean concentration of total FDOM in western Lake Chaohu and its inflow rivers were 220.0 ± 40.30 μg quinine sulfate units (Q.S.)/L and 406.3 ± 213.1 μg Q.S./L, respectively. The significant, positive correlations were observed between the PFAAs and FDOMs in both the lake area and the inflow rivers. However, no significant correlation was observed between PFAAs and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the lake area. This finding indicated that the residues and distributions of PFAAs were significantly dependent on the compositions of dissolved organic matters (DOM) and not on the total content of DOM.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Response to "Overgeneralization by Anderson et al. and Luz et al. regarding safety of fluorotelomer-base chemistry"

Authors: Anderson, JK; Luz, AL; Goodrum, P (2019) Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. [Letter] HERO ID: 5097905


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorohexanoic acid toxicity, part II: Application of human health toxicity value for risk characterization

Authors: Anderson, JK; Luz, AL; Goodrum, P; Durda, J (2019) Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 103:10-20. HERO ID: 5097906

[Less] Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) is a short-chain, six-carbon PFAA and is a primary impurity, degradant, . . . [More] Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) is a short-chain, six-carbon PFAA and is a primary impurity, degradant, and metabolite associated with the short-chain fluorotelomer-based chemistry used in the United States, Europe and Japan today. With the shift towards short-chain PFAA chemistry, uncertainties remain regarding human health risks associated with current exposure levels. Here, we present a critical review and assessment of data relevant to human health risk assessment to today's short-chain PFAA chemistry. Human biomonitoring surveys indicate that PFHxA is infrequently detected in the environment as well as in human serum and urine; however, human health concerns may persist in locations where PFHxA is detected. In a companion paper (Luz et al., 2019) we comprehensively evaluate the available toxicity data for PFHxA, and derive a chronic human health-based reference dose (RfD) for PFHxA of 0.25 mg/kg-day based on benchmark dose modeling of renal papillary necrosis in chronically exposed female rats. In this paper, we apply this RfD in human health-based screening levels calculations, and derive a drinking water lifetime health advisory of 1400 μg/L and a residential groundwater screening level for children of 4000 μg/L. Compared to environmental concentration data, even sites with more elevated concentrations of PFHxA in the environment are at least an order of magnitude lower than these screening levels. Available PFHxA human serum and urine biomonitoring data, used as a biomarker for general population exposure, demonstrates that the general human population exposures to PFHxA are low. Previous estimates of daily intake rates for infants exposed to PFHxA through breast milk, formula, and baby foods (Lorenzo et al., 2016) combined with the most conservative PFHxA peer-reviewed toxicity value (Luz et al., 2019) demonstrate that the margin of safety for PFHxA is high. Therefore, PFHxA and related fluorotelomer precursors currently appear to present negligible human health risk to the general population and are not likely to drive or substantially contribute to risk at sites contaminated with PFAS mixtures. PFHxA may also represent a suitable marker for the safety of fluorotelomer replacement chemistry used today.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Addendum to Iwai and Hoberman (2014)-Reassessment of Developmental Toxicity of PFHxA in Mice

Authors: Iwai, H; Hoberman, AM; Goodrum, PE; Mendelsohn, E; Anderson, JK (2019) International Journal of Toxicology 1091581819837904. HERO ID: 5097907

[Less] This article presents a supplemental data analysis and evaluation of the findings from an oral (gavage) . . . [More] This article presents a supplemental data analysis and evaluation of the findings from an oral (gavage) combined developmental and perinatal/postnatal reproduction toxicity study of the ammonium salt of perfluorohexanoic acid (CASRN: 21615-47-4) in Crl: CD-1(ICR) mice. The original study has been cited as supporting a lowest-observed-adverse-effects level of 175 mg/kg/d and no-observed-adverse-effects level of 35 mg/kg/d for developmental effects from perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, CASRN: 307-24-4) in mice. The statistical analysis reported in 2014 was accurate in terms of quantifying statistical significance within phase 2 of the study. However, given the low incidence of findings, the purpose of this article is to extend the analysis and interpretation of findings by pooling the control group information from both phases of the same study, comparing the study findings to the incidence rates for stillbirths and postpartum viability for this species and strain of mouse observed for similar studies conducted by the same laboratory, and evaluating data on the incidence and range of spontaneous eye abnormalities reported in the literature. Based on this supplemental evaluation, the original study supports a NOAEL of 175 mg/kg/d for PFHxA in mice, which is a factor of 5-fold higher than previously reported. Furthermore, to the extent that this study may be considered in the selection of a point of departure for PFHxA in mice, it is noted that 175 mg/kg/d for maternal exposure is an unbounded NOAEL for developmental effects, meaning that the study did not establish a dose at which developmental effects may occur.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Selection of High Flux Membrane for the Effective Removal of Short-Chain Perfluorocarboxylic Acids

Authors: Soriano, A; Gorri, D; Urtiaga, Ane (2019) HERO ID: 5079967


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Membrane preconcentration as an efficient tool to reduce the energy consumption of perfluorohexanoic acid electrochemical treatment

Authors: Soriano, A; Gorri, D; Urtiaga, Ane (2019) HERO ID: 5079968


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Contaminants of emerging concern in freshwater fish from four Spanish Rivers

Authors: Pico, Y; Belenguer, V; Corcellas, C; Diaz-Cruz, MS; Eljarrat, E; Farre, M; Gago-Ferrero, P; Huerta, B; Navarro-Ortega, A; Petrovic, M; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S; Sabater, L; Santin, G; Barcelo, D (2019) HERO ID: 5097916


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Toxicokinetics of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in male and female Hsd:Sprague dawley SD rats following intravenous or gavage administration

Authors: Dzierlenga, AL; Robinson, VG; Waidyanatha, S; Devito, MJ; Eifrid, MA; Gibbs, ST; Granville, CA; Blystone, CR (2019) Xenobiotica 1-11. HERO ID: 5916078

[Less] Poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are environmentally persistent chemicals associated . . . [More] Poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are environmentally persistent chemicals associated with many adverse health outcomes. The National Toxicology Program evaluated the toxicokinetics (TK) of several PFAS to provide context for toxicologic findings.Plasma TK parameters and tissue (liver, kidney, brain) concentrations are reported for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) or perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) after single-dose administration in male and female Hsd:Sprague-Dawley® (SD) rats.Generally, longer Tmax and elimination half-lives, and slower clearance f, were correlated with longer chain length. Male rats administered PFOA had a prolonged half-life compared to females (215 h vs. 2.75), while females had faster clearance and smaller plasma area under the curve (AUC). Females administered PFHxA had a shorter half-life (2 h vs. 9) than males and faster clearance with a smaller plasma AUC, although this was less pronounced than PFOA. There was no sex difference in PFDA half-life. Female rats administered PFDA had a higher plasma AUC/dose than males, and a slower clearance. PFDA had the highest levels in the liver of the PFAS evaluated.Profiling the toxicokinetics of these PFAS allows for comparison among subclasses, and more direct translation of rodent toxicity to human populations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Subtle morphometric, behavioral and gene expression effects in larval zebrafish exposed to PFHxA, PFHxS and 6:2 FTOH

Authors: Annunziato, KM; Jantzen, CE; Gronske, MC; Cooper, KR (2019) Aquatic Toxicology 208:126-137. HERO ID: 5080590

[Less] Recent studies of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) have focused on the toxicity of long chain PFASs, . . . [More] Recent studies of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) have focused on the toxicity of long chain PFASs, such as PFOS or PFOA, which have been demonstrated to cause an array of developmental and behavioral effects. However, less is known about low molecular weight PFASs and alternatives. This study examined the morphometric and behavioral effects in zebrafish following developmental exposures of C6 PFASs: perfluorohexanoic acid, PFHxA, perfluorohexane sulfonate, PFHxS, and 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol, 6:2 FTOH. Embryos were exposed to 0.02-20 μM concentrations of these compounds from the high stage (˜3 h post fertilization, hpf) until 120 hpf. Morphometric and gene expression endpoints were examined at 120 hpf. Genes selected for analysis were previously shown to be altered in zebrafish developmentally exposed to PFOS and PFOA. Additionally, exposed larvae were transferred to clean water and reared until 14 days post fertilization, dpf, when behavioral assays were completed and morphometric endpoints examined. While PFHxA was found to be the most acutely toxic at 120 hpf, few morphometric effects were observed. Gene expression was the most sensitive endpoint with significant increased tgfb1a, bdnf, and ap1s1 expression observed with PFHxA exposure. PFHxS exposure produced morphometric effects in the larvae, specifically increased length and yolk sac area at 2 and 20 μM. This phenotype persisted to the 14 dpf time point, where these larvae additionally displayed decreased distance traveled and crosses through the center of the arena of the behavioral assay. Exposure to 6:2 FTOH caused no morphometric effects at 120 hpf, and this compound was the least acutely toxic. However, expression of both tgfb1a and bdnf were increased by greater than 2 fold change at this time point. Effects also persisted to 14 dpf where a significant increase in distance traveled and velocity were observed in the behavioral assay. This study demonstrates effects on behavioral, morphometric and gene expression endpoints with developmental PFHxA, PFHxS, and 6:2 FTOH exposures in zebrafish.