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Journal Article 
Anti-cariogenic properties of malvidin-3,5-diglucoside isolated from Alcea longipedicellata against oral bacteria 
Esmaeelian, B; Kamrani, YY; Amanlou, M; Amoozegar, MA; Rahmani, S; Rahimi, M 
International Journal of Pharmacology
ISSN: 1811-7775 
The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-cariogenic effects of the indigenous Iranian medicinal plant Alcea longipedicellata (Malvaceae), to inhibit the growth and acid production of Streptococcus mutans and other cariogenic bacteria involved in dental plaque. The growth inhibitory activity of the ethanol and chloroform extracts were tested against S. mutans, S. salivarious, S. sobrinus and S. sanguis. From an ethanol extract or A. longipedicellata flowers, malvidin-3,5-diglucoside (malvin) was identified as a principal constiuents which was responsible for antibacterial activity of extract. The malvin showed bacteriocidal activity, while ethanol and chloroform extracts was bacteriostatic. The MIC value of the malvin was 0.16-0.22 mg mL SUP -1. In vitro studies had shown that 0.1% malvin could inhibit strongly acid-producing ability of S. mutans and salivary glycolysis up to 2 h post rinsing and reduced total bacterial counts of saliva up to 40% 3 h post rinsing. 0.1% malvin was about 60% effective in inhibiting bacterial adherence, as shown by the low weight of accumulated S. mutans plaque to glass surface. In conclusion, the anti-acidogenic effect of A. longipedicellata suggests that this material could be a useful source for the development of promising anti-cariogenic agents and led to use for pharmaceutical preparations such as mouth rinse. (c) 2007 Asian Network for Scientific Information 
Adult; alcohol; angiosperm; antibacterial activity; antiinfective agent ,drug analysis ,an; antiinfective agent ,drug therapy ,dt; antiinfective agent ,endogenous compound ,ec; antiinfective agent ,oral drug administration ,po; article; bacterial count; bacterium adherence; chemical composition; chemistry; Chloroform; controlled study; drug efficacy; drug structure; Embase 2007 to 04/30/08; Ethanol; flower; Flowers; glycolysis; growth inhibition; human; human experiment; in vitro study; medicinal plant; minimum inhibitory concentration; mouth flora; mouth hygiene; nonhuman; normal human; Pharmaceutical Preparations; placebo; plant extract ,drug analysis ,an; plant extract ,drug therapy ,dt; plant extract ,endogenous compound ,ec; saliva analysis; solvent extraction; Streptococcus mutans; Streptococcus salivarius; Streptococcus sanguinis; Streptococcus sobrinus; tooth plaque ,drug therapy ,dt; tooth plaque ,prevention ,pc