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Journal Article 
Characterization of benzene and formaldehyde emissions from burning incense and scented candles indoors: Development of exposure scenarios and recommendations for use 
Maupetit, F; Squinazi, F 
Environnement, Risques & Sante
ISSN: 1635-0421 
Burning incense and scented candles indoors is known to produce particles, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide but relatively few studies have documented their emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and formaldehyde. This study presents a methodology to characterise the emissions of VOCs and formaldehyde from those products. The measurements taken were used to assess health risk for consumers and to make recommendations for use. Methodology: VOCs and formaldehyde emissions from 43 products were measured in a test room of the Centre scientifique et technique du batiment (CSTB) experimental house. A testing protocol was established to characterise time-dependent emissions from burning incense and candles. Results: For incense sticks and cones, the highest benzene and formaldehyde emissions were measured during combustion and for an hour afterwards: the concentrations measured then decreased significantly as the pollutants were removed by the ventilation system (0.6 vol/h). Incense cones emitted more formaldehyde than incense sticks, and for incense in general, the higher the burnt mass, the higher the emissions. Benzene and formaldehyde emissions from scented candles were far lower than from incense. Nevertheless, formaldehyde emissions did increase slightly during candle burning, presumably due to secondary reactions. Applications: The experimental methodology presented in this paper was used to assess the risks of indoor exposure to benzene and formaldehyde associated with the combustion of incense and candles. Specific exposure scenarios were developed. Results from this risk assessment have been presented to producers, who have used them to modify their products ( mainly by diminution of the burnt mass) or to formulate low-emission products. Exposure scenarios were also used to derive recommendations on indoor use of incense and scented candles. 
air pollution; indoor; benzene; formaldehyde; health risk assessment; organic chemicals; perfume 
• Formaldehyde
     Reproductive and Developmental Effects
                    Not formaldehyde
     Retroactive RIS import
               FA DevRepro 072115
                    Not FA-Exposure Criteria
                         Not FA-Exposure Criteria