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Journal Article 
Phytotoxicity evaluations of ten insecticides on twenty-three species of ornamental plants under salt shed conditions 
Neel, PL; Reinert, JA 
Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society
ISSN: 0097-1219 
88 1975 
HEEP COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. In June, 1975, insecticides were applied to woody ornamental plants commonly grown in S. Florida (USA). Plants treated were Araucaria excelsa R. Br. (Norfolk Island pine); Acalypha wilkesiana Muell. Arg. (copperleaf); Asparagus sprengeri Regel. (sprengeri asparagus fern); Brassaia actinophylla Endl. (schefflera); Bucida buceras L. (black olive); Chrysalidocarpus lutescens Wendl. (areca or Madagascar palm); Coccoloba uvifera L. (sea grape); Codiaeum variegatum Blume (croton); Dizygotheca elegantissima Vig. and Guill. (false aralia); Dracaena marginata Lam. (red edge dracaena); Ficus benjamina L. (Benjamin fig); F. retusa L. (Cuban laurel, F. nitida); Hibiscus calycinus Willd. (yellow hibiscus); H. rosa-sinensis L. (red or Chinese hibiscus); Ixora coccinea L. (red ixora); Jasminum volubile Jacq. (wax jasmine, J. simplicifolium); Ligustrum japonicum Thumb. (waxleaf privet, L. lucidum recurvifolia); Murraya paniculata Jack (chalcas, orange jessamine); Philodendron selloum C. Koch (self heading philodendron); Pittosporum tobira Ait (Japanese pittosporum); Podocarpus macrophylla D. Don. (podocarpus); Viburnum suspensum Lindl. (suspensum); and Veitchia merrilli (Becc.) Moore (Christmas palm). The following insecticides were used at label rates and twice the recommended rate: carbaryl, carbofuran, chlordimeform, chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, formetanate, leptophos, oxamyl, trichlorfon + oxydemetonmethyl, and trichlorfon. They were applied to the point of run-off onto dry foliage. Three applications, each a week apart, were made. Phytotoxic symptoms were evaluated 3 days after each application and 2.5 wk after the final treatment. Araucaria, Asparagus, Chrysalidocarpus, Coccoloba, Codiaeum, Dizygotheca, Dracaena, Philodendron, Pittosporum, Podocarpus and Veitchia tolerated most or all of these insecticides with essentially no damage. Acalypha, Brassaia, Bucida, Ficus, Hibiscus, Ligustrum and Viburnum were sensitive to many or all of the chemicals. At recommended rates, Diazinon and carbaryl produced the least number of phytotoxic symptoms on the least number of species, while trichlorfon + oxydemetonmethyl and leptophos produced the greatest number of symptoms on the greatest number of species.