Dose-response relationships for chronic exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a rat tumor promotion model: Quantification and immunolocalization of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in the liver
The mechanisms responsible for the braod spectrum of effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are not entirely clear but seem to involve an initial interaction with the Ah receptor. A major uncertainty in risk assessment for TCDD is the lack of adequate dose-response relationships following chronic exposure to TCDD. Induction of cytochrome P-450 enzymes (CYP1A1 and CYP1A2) is one of the most sensitive responses to TCDD and its structural analogues. We have used a two-stage model for hepatocarcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate dose-response relationships for induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in diethylnitrosamine-initiated as well as in noninitiated rats. After initiation with a single dose of diethylnitrosamine, TCDD was administered biweekly by p.o. gavage at doses equivalent to 3.5, 10.7, 35.7, and 125 ng/kg/day for 30 weeks. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 concentrations were quantified in hepatic microsomes by radioimmunoassay and localized in hepatic tissue slices by immunohistochemical techniques. Radioimmunoassay data revealed a maximum induction of 200-fold for CYP1A1 and 10-fold for CYP1A2 and there were no statistically significant differences between initiated and noninitiated rats. Induction at the lowest dose (3.5 ng/kg/day) was 20-fold for CYP1A1 and 3-fold for CYP1A2. Mathematical analysis indicates that the best fit of the induction data are inconsistent with a threshold for this response. There was a linear relationship between administered dose and TCDD liver concentration over the entire dose range of the study. This indicates that induction of CYP1A2 does not significantly alter the distribution of TCDD in our chronic dosing regimen. Immunolocalization of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 revealed the same localization and induction pattern for both isozymes in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. However, the hepatic distribution pattern was not uniform with the most intense staining observed around central veins. These studies help to clarify dose-response relationships for dioxin-mediated effects and demonstrate different sensitivity of hepatocytes to the effects of TCDD.