Extrapolation of a PBPK model for dioxins across dosage regimen, gender, strain, and species
A physiologically based pharmacodynamic (PBPK) model for 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was developed based on pharmacokinetic data from acute oral exposures of TCDD to female Sprague-Dawley rats (Wang et al., 1997, Toxicol Appl. Pharmacol 147, 151-168). In the present study, the utility of this model to predict the disposition of TCDD in male and female Sprague-Dawley and female Wistar rats exposed to TCDD through different dosage regimens was examined. The ability of the model to predict the disposition of 2-iodo-3,7,8-trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (ITrCDD) in mice (Leung, et al., 1990, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 103, 399-410) was also examined. The ability of the model to predict across routes of exposure was assessed with intravenous injection data (5.6 microg/kg bw) (Li et al., 1995, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 27, 70-76) in female rats. Analysis across gender extrapolations used data for male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed intravenously to 9.25 microg TCDD/kg bw (Weber et al., 1993, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 21, 523-534). The analysis of across-dosage regimen and stains of rats extrapolations were assessed using data from rats exposed to TCDD through a loading/maintenance dosage regimen (Krowke et al., 1989, Arch. Toxicol. 63, 356-360). The physiological differences between gender, strain, and species were taken into account when fitting the PBPK model to these data sets. The results demonstrate that the PBPK model for TCDD developed for female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed by acute oral dosing accurately predicts the disposition of TCDD, for different gender and strain of rats across varying dosage regimens, as well as in a strain of mice. Minimal changes in fitted parameters were required to provide accurate predictions of these data sets. This study provides further confirmation of the potential use of physiological modeling in understanding pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling; pharmacokinetics; species extrapolation; risk assessment