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2851011 
Journal Article 
Novel fluorinated surfactants tentatively identified in firefighters using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and a case-control approach 
Rotander, A; Kärrman, A; Toms, LM; Kay, M; Mueller, JF; Gómez Ramos, MJ 
2015 
Yes 
Environmental Science and Technology
ISSN: 0013-936X
EISSN: 1520-5851 
49 
2434-2442 
English 
Fluorinated surfactant-based aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) are made up of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) and are used to extinguish fires involving highly flammable liquids. The use of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in some AFFF formulations has been linked to substantial environmental contamination. Recent studies have identified a large number of novel and infrequently reported fluorinated surfactants in different AFFF formulations. In this study, a strategy based on a case-control approach using quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS/MS) and advanced statistical methods has been used to extract and identify known and unknown PFAS in human serum associated with AFFF-exposed firefighters. Two target sulfonic acids [PFOS and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS)], three non-target acids [perfluoropentanesulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluoroheptanesulfonic acid (PFHpS), and perfluorononanesulfonic acid (PFNS)], and four unknown sulfonic acids (Cl-PFOS, ketone-PFOS, ether-PFHxS, and Cl-PFHxS) were exclusively or significantly more frequently detected at higher levels in firefighters compared to controls. The application of this strategy has allowed for identification of previously unreported fluorinated chemicals in a timely and cost-efficient way. 
• ^Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
     PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
          Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFNS (68259-12-1)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFHpS (375-92-8)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFHxS (355-46-4)
          Literature search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFPeS (2706-91-4)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
• PFHpS
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Susceptible populations
• PFHxS
     Literature Search
          PubMed
          Toxline
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
               PubMed
• PFNS
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Susceptible populations
• PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
     Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Susceptible populations
     Literature Search Update (2013-2019)
          PubMed
          WOS
• PFPeS
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Susceptible populations