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Book/Book Chapter 
Treatment and permitting of produced water for discharge to surface water 
Mueller, D 
Society of Petroleum Engineers 
Richardson, TX 
2015 SPE hydraulic fracturing technology conference 
is a chapter of 3227282 2015 SPE hydraulic fracturing technology conference
The recycling and reuse of produced water (defined ashydraulic fracturing flowback water and formation water) is an increasingpractice driven by competing demands for water sources and limited options forproduced water disposal. The final disposition of reused/recycled produced water dictates the level of treatment with typically minimal treatment required when produce water is reused forfracturing subsequent wells and higher levels of treatment required whenproduced water us recycled for other purposes or potentially discharged to surface water bodies. The latter scenario, discharge of treated produced water is addressed in this article. Clean Water Act National Pollutant Discharge EliminationSystem (NPDES) permits for direct discharge of oil and gas generated discharge are currently prohibited east of the 98th meridian. West of the 98th meridian, direct discharge of treated oil and gas wastewater is allowed under specific conditions. Regardless of location (east or west of the 98th meridian), centralized wastewater treatment facilities can be permitted to treat and discharge oil and gas wastewater or CWT discharge may be accepted for further treatment and ultimate dischargeat publically owned wastewater treatment facilities (POTWs). The EPA is currently developing effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs) for pretreatment of oil and gas wastewater sent to POTWs for treatment and discharge. This paper will address the status of EPA POTW ELG development (scheduled for release for comment by end of the year 2014) and effluent permitting requirements for CWTs both direct discharging to surface water bodies and to POTWs. Addressed is the level of treatment achieved by the various treatment technologies currently deployed and the permitted effluent limits for these facilities. When treating produced water for discharge, constituent levels in the effluent stream and the waste side streams (consisting of a concentration of constituents removed as part of the water treatment processes) must be monitored to ensure proper management. Compliance with the appropriate regulatory programs (Clean Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act,, and the Safe Drinking Water Act is requirement of a comprehensive waste management program. All are addressed as part of this review of regulatory requirements and evaluation of currently operating facilities. 
SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference 
The Woodlands, TX 
February 3-5, 2015