Analysis of glycols, glycol ethers, and other volatile organic compounds present in household water-based hand pump sprays
The aim of this investigation is to clarify the types and concentrations of VOCs present in various commercial household water-based hand pump spray products used in Japan, and to estimate their average concentrations in indoor air when the spray product is used. We selected glycol and glycol ethers as the main target compounds, as these chemicals were detected at high frequencies and concentrations in a national survey of Japanese indoor air pollution. The extraction of these chemicals using graphite carbon cartridges was examined, with good recoveries and reproducibilities being obtained. Eighteen chemicals were analyzed in 54 commercial products and 8 chemicals were detected. More specifically, dipropylene glycol (DPG) was present in 44 samples (1.1 × 101-1.8 × 104 μg/mL); propylene glycol (PG) was present in 22 samples (1.5 × 101-2.9 × 104 μg/mL); diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DGMEE) was found in 15 samples (trace amount-1.9 × 103 μg/mL); diethylene glycol (DEG) was present in 9 samples (1.0 × 101-2.4 × 103 μg/mL); 1,3-butandiol (13BG) was found in 5 samples (trace amount-7.4 × 103 μg/mL); 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) was detected in 5 samples (3.2 × 10-1-4.4 × 101 μg/mL); diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGMBE) was present in 4 samples (2.1 × 101-7.1 × 101 μg/mL); and 3-methoxy-3-methylbutanol (MMB) was found in 2 samples (2.4 × 101-4.7 × 102 μg/mL). In addition, the average concentrations of these chemicals in indoor air were estimated using their maximum concentrations observed in the spray product. The estimated average concentrations of the chemicals in indoor air were determined to range between 1.0 × 10-2 and 1.0 mg/m3, with the exception of 2E1H and DGMBE. Furthermore, the estimated average concentrations of PG, 13BG, and DGMEE in indoor air were comparable to or higher than those reported in a national survey of Japanese indoor air pollution. It therefore appeared that household water-based hand pump sprays may contribute to the presence of these chemicals in indoor air. In contrast, estimated average concentrations of 2E1H in indoor air were low, its concentrations observed in a national survey of Japanese indoor air pollution are likely due to the use of plasticizers and paints.