Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)

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Journal Article 
Cryptosporidiosis treatment in Leopard Geckos (Eublepharis macularius) with azithromycin (Zithromax (R)) and paromomycin sulfate (Humatin (R)) - case reports and review of the literature 
Pantchev, N; Ruschoff, B; Kamhuber-Pohl, A; Biron, K 
Reptiles kept in captivity are very often infected with parasites and the resulting disease can lead to severe health problems. From 44 reptile fecal samples tested positive for cryptosporidia, the fraction of Leopard Geckos (Eublepharis macularius) with 18 animals was the highest. The most frequently detected species was Cryptosporidium saurophilum, which is located mainly in the small intestine and leads to anorexia, progressive decrease in body weight, vomiting and diarrhea. It can even culminate in death in infected Leopard Geckos. Two therapy approaches were investigated for their effectiveness in naturally infected animals. The paromomycin sulfate treatment improved the clinical symptoms and led to negative findings in the coprological diagnostics in three cases. It was not able, however, to eliminate the infection from 2 of 4 animals in one case. The azithromycin treatment was found to be not effective and did not show any effect on the cryptosporidia shedding in all three cases treated. The treatment of cryptosporidiosis with hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC), halofuginone, spiramycin, sulfonamides, triazine derivatives and nitazoxanide are reviewed. Since no compliant treatment is available that is both causal and effective in completely eliminating the infection from reptiles, quarantine and prevention are of major importance in controlling cryptosporidiosis in these species. 
Leopard Gecko; Eublepharis macularius; Cryptosporidium saurophilum; enteritis; paromomycin sulfate; azithromycin; reptiles; bovine colostrum treatment; anticryptosporidial activity; therapeutic-efficacy; serpentis apicomplexa; captive snakes; toltrazuril; infections; parvum