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Journal Article 
Aquatic toxicological effects of organotins: An overview 
Hawkins, WE; Heard, CS; Walker, WW 
Tributyltin (TBT) has been shown to elicit various behavioral, developmental, and lethal toxic responses in each phylogenetic taxon tested. Exposure to concentrations as low as 50 ng/L has stunted the growth of a species of clam. Samples of bivalve, gastropod, and fish tissues from areas of TBT use contain concentrations up to 2.0 mg/kg TBT. Muscle tissues of cultured fish purchased in public markets contain TBT which is not effectively removed by cooking processes. Sediment binding of TBT is dependent upon salinity and water movement and therefore the role it plays in removal may not be final. Cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed function oxidase systems metabolize TBT in mammals, species of crabs and fish, and to a minor degree, in oysters. TBT affects the integrity of cells and organelles by binding to the membrane thereby blocking receptors and disrupting cellular functions. The membrane binding at high TBT concentrations essentially "fixes" the cell as if with formaldehyde. Therefore, the toxicity of TBT at low concentrations may slowly interfere with normal cell functions, whereas acute doses may denature cellular proteins. 
cultured organisms; health and safety; marine pollution; organometallic compounds; organotin compounds; Pollution Abstracts; ASFA Aquaculture Abstracts; ASFA 2: Ocean Technology Policy & Non-Living Resources; ASFA 1: Biological Sciences & Living Resources; Oceanic Abstracts; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; IEEE-89CH2780-5; tin compounds; toxicology; fishery products; fouling; literature reviews; antifouling substances; fisheries; Q5 08504:Effects on organisms; Q3 08581:Aquaculture: General; O 8050:Conferences; P 1000:MARINE POLLUTION; Q1 08542:Prevention and control; Q2 09282:Materials technology, corrosion, fouling and boring