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Technical Report 
Research needs concerning organotin compounds used in antifouling paints in coastal environments 
Champ, MA; Bleil, DF 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
Rockville, MD 
In the early 1960's, two organotin compounds (tributyltin oxide and tributyltin fluoride) were first used as a molluscicides to kill several species of freshwater snails that were the intermediate hosts of the worms of the genus Schistosoma, which transmit the disease of Schistosomiasis to humans. This immediately led to the use of tributyltin (TBT) moiety as a paint additive in 1961 for its biocidal properties in antifoulant boat bottom paints. The toxicity of organotin compounds to aquatic organisms is thought to increase with the number of butyl substituents from one to three, and then to decrease with the addition of a fourth butyl group. Elemental or inorganic forms of tin (as in mineral deposits or tin can) appear to cause negligible toxicological effects in humans or wildlife. The Navy 's decision to implement fleet-wide (approximately 600 ships) use of organotin based antifouling paints precipitated regulatory activities in the US Congress and in the legislatures of several states. On January 8, 1986, the US EPA announced the initiation of a Special Review of all registered pesticide products containing TBT compounds used as additives (biocides) in antifouling paints applied to boat and ship hulls to inhibit the growth of certain aquatic organisms. In initiating the Special Review for TBT, EPA identified significant gaps in the technical information needed to support the registration of TBT used in antifoulant paints. This study 's purpose is to provide the National Ocean Policy Board with the technical and policy information required to support the mandated role of the Federal Government to evaluate, monitor, and control the adverse effects from the use of organotin compounds used as additives (biocides) in antifoulant boat paints. The report has been prepared in five chapters which review and summarize: (1) organotin based antifoulant paints; (2) legislative responsibilities of Federal agencies with respect to evaluating, monitoring, and regulating the use of organotin compounds in vessel antifouling paints, and proposed or pending or enacted legislation by individual states and other Nations; (3) the usage patterns of TBT antifouling paints; (3) the status of scientific knowledge; and (5) research needs and recommendation concerning TBT in coastal waters. (Lantz-PTT) 
Water Resources Abstracts; Antifoulants; Organotins; Pesticides; Water pollution effects; Organotin compounds; Toxicity; Research priorities; Legislation; Marine environment; Structure-activity relationships; Organic compounds; SW 3030:Effects of pollution