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Physical activity, dietary habits and sleep quality before and during COVID-19 lockdown: A longitudinal study
Martínez-De-Quel, Ó; Suárez-Iglesias, D; López-Flores, M; Pérez, CA; ,
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The COVID-19 pandemic has forced the health public authorities to impose a lockdown as an epidemiological containment strategy. This study aimed to provide information regarding the impact of the mandatory confinement on the physical activity, eating disorders risk, sleep quality and well-being on a Spanish sample. An online survey that included the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Eating Attitude Test-26, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was administered two days after the state of alarm was stablished in Spain and five days after such measures began to be eased. Out of the 693 people who answered the first questionnaire, 161 completed the second one. These participants spent a total of 48 days locked at home, a period during which a significant worsening in all the variables assessed except for the risk of developing eating disorders, was observed: weight (kg), 67.3 ± 14.8 vs 67.7 ± 15.1, p = 0.012; physical activity (MET minutes per week), 8515.7 ± 10260.0 vs 5053.5 ± 5502.0, p < 0.001; sleep problems (total score), 6.2 ± 3.5 vs 7.2 ± 3.9, p < 0.001; self-perceived well-being (score), 4 (3-4) vs 3 (3-4), p < 0.001. The confinement had a significant differential effect on physically active participants, who experienced a significant decline (p < 0.05) on their physical activity levels, quality of sleep and well-being; whereas physically inactive participants did not experience significant changes. Findings from this longitudinal study indicate that a lockdown period due to COVID-19 had a negative impact on the physical activity levels, sleep quality and well-being in a group of physically active Spanish adults. Public health authorities should be aware that people who usually lead an active lifestyle, might be particularly susceptible to such disruptions.
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