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Journal Article 
Removing Iron, Manganese and Ammonium Ions from Water Using Greensand in Fluidized Bed Process 
Galangashi, MA; Kojidi, SFM; Pendashteh, A; Souraki, BA; Mirroshandel, AA 
Journal of Water Process Engineering
ISSN: 2214-7144 
Natural minerals are used as sorbent in water treatment processes due to their high exchange and relatively low cost. In this paper, a pilot water treatment was conducted to explore the application of greensand in a fluidized bed column while the iron, manganese and ammonium removal performances of two treatment processes, including greensand filtration and potassium permanganate-greensand filtration were evaluated. The breakthrough curves were investigated to analyze the effect of variables such as bed height and inlet flow on the removal performance in addition to the physical properties of greensand. The results showed that the effect of potassium permanganate on the outlet concentration of the fluidized bed was significant in terms of the breakthrough curves which led to the breakthrough points for iron and manganese. It was found that adding potassium permanganate increased the equilibrium column capacity (q(eq)) from 5.18 mg/g and 2.16 mg/g to 12.70 mg/g and 11.29 mg/g for iron and manganese respectively. So Fe and Mn outlet concentrations reached under the admissible maximum concentration of drinking water. In the experiments without KMnO4, iron removal was found to be caused by reductive dissolution and adsorption while adsorption was the only mechanism for manganese removal. The findings indicated that ammonium removal was minimally influenced by KMnO4 and ion exchange was the main mechanism for ammonium removal. 
Adsorption; Iron; Manganese; Ammonium; Fluidized Bed; Greensand