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Journal Article 
Comparative studies on the antimicrobial properties of seed and bark of walnut 
Ike, CO; Orjioke, NM; Okoro, UC; Ogbuanu, CC; Chukwuemeka-Okorie, HO; Aguoma, CC; Nweloke, CR; Nsude, OP; Ugwu, MC; Benjamin, PA 
SILAE (Italo-Latin American Society of Ethnomedicine) 
Walnut (Juglans regia) is widely distributed over the world. This work compares the antimicrobial activity of seed and bark ethanol extracts as well as the n-hexane extracts of walnut (Juglans Regia) against two clinical strains of one Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), and one Gram negative (Escherichia coli) by agar well diffusion method using ciprofloxacin as the standard antibiotic. Ethanolic and n-hexane extracts of the seed and bark of walnut were used in varying concentrations of 100 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml, 25 mg/ml, 12.5 mg/ml, 6.25 mg/ml and 3.125 mg/ml respectively. The four extracts (n-hexane and ethanol extract of the seed and bark of walnut, separately) were found to show a moderate antimicrobial activity though the ethanolic extracts possessed more activity than the n-hexane. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found to range from 1.25 mg/ml to 6.25 for the four extracts respectively. When compared with standard antibiotics, the ethanolic and n-hexane extracts showed a moderate inhibition on these organisms. Seed and bark of walnut are therefore justified for the treatment of human infections associated with these organisms. © 2021, SILAE (Italo-Latin American Society of Ethnomedicine). All rights reserved. 
Antimicrobial; Ethanol; Mueller hinton agar; N-hexane