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Journal Article 
Cytoprotective effect of antioxidant on endosulfan induced architecture of spermatozoa in mice: A transmission electron microscope (tem) view 
Ali, M; Kumar, R; Nath, A; Singh, JK; Kumar, A 
In the present investigation spermatozoa architecture after endosulfan treatment in mice have been evaluated. Similarly fruit extract of Amla (Emblica officinalis) as an antioxidant have been tested for probable restoration in sperm architecture exposed to endosulfan treatment. Endosulfan is a pesticide of organochlorine group. Government of Kerala (India) banned this pesticide due to its indiscriminate use in Kasargod district and hazardous effect on health among cashew nut workers. In the present investigation, the dose of 3 mg/Kg b.w of Endosulfan was continuously administered to male mice for 35 days after that aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fruit has been administered for 35 days at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. to evaluate ameliorating effect on sperm. The mice were sacrificed on 35th day of Amla treatment followed by 35 days of endosulfan treatment to observe the architecture of spermatozoa through Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Electron micrograph of spermatozoa of 3 mg/kg Endosulfan treated for 35 days showed degeneration in apical acrosome region with degenerative changes in plasma membrane and nuclear membrane of head region of spermatozoa. The degeneration were also observed in 9+2 arrangement of microtubule and mitochondrial sheath of mid piece of spermatozoa while principal piece showed without plasma membrane which denotes complete degeneration of plasma membrane. Outer dense fibers were fused with microtubules. The divergent arms were degenerated and not visible clearly. This way marked degenerative changes were observed in the architecture of spermatozoa (Head Piece, Mid Piece and Principal Piece) after exposure of endosulfan. Emblica officinalis at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. showing restoration of acrosomal material, better effect on condensation of chromatin material, plasma membrane and nuclear membrane is almost reformed, middle piece and principal piece showing restoration of intact plasma membrane. Thus from the above study it can be concluded that amla as an antioxidant has more potency to check male reproductive deformities. 
Emblica officinalis(Amla); Endosulfan; Mice; Spermatozoa; Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM).