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Journal Article 
Human health risk evaluation of ACQ-treated wood 
Cushing, CA; Golden, R; Lowney, YW; Holm, SE 
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment
ISSN: 1080-7039
EISSN: 1549-7860 
Alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) Type D is one of several compounds currently being used as a chemical preservative to treat wood for prevention of rot and decay. As wood weathers naturally, human exposure to ACQ might occur through dermal contact or incidental ingestion of residues from the wood surface. To understand any potential for health risks from the use of ACQ-treated wood, a health-based evaluation was undertaken on the primary components of ACQ, which are copper, didecyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate, 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, and 5-chloro-2- methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one. For these components, there are no formalized toxicity values in USEPA's Integrated Risk Information System, although extensive toxicity data are available in the scientific literature. Therefore, health-based toxicity benchmarks were derived from a review of existing toxicity data. The exposure assessment was based on methods developed by the Consumer Product Safety Commission in their evaluation of the potential for children's exposure to arsenic from wood treated with chromated copper arsenate. This approach entailed wipe testing the surface of treated wood to determine the amount of chemical that might be removed from the wood, and estimating the amount of chemical that a child might contact via the dermal route or incidental ingestion through hand-to-mouth activities. All calculated exposure estimates were well below toxicity benchmarks. 
ACQ; treated wood; children; DDAC; MI; MCI; risk assessment