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Journal Article 
Analysis of diurnal variability of atmospheric halocarbons and CFC replacements to imply emission strength and sources at an urban site of Lukang in central Taiwan 
Lee, BSun; Chiou, CB; Lin, CYi 
Atmospheric Environment
ISSN: 1352-2310
EISSN: 1873-2844 
Hourly atmospheric measurements of halocarbons and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) replacements were conducted at an urban site of Lukang, Changhua, in central Taiwan from May to August, 2013. The temporal distribution of different groups of halocarbons in the Lukang urban atmosphere, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22), Bromochlorodifluoromethane (Halon-1211), and other chlorinated compounds, is presented and discussed. The concentrations (mixing ratios) of HCFC-22, Dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), Halon-1211, Trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), Dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), and Trichloroethylene (TCE) were enhanced with respect to the local background levels; the atmospheric mixing ratio of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was slightly higher than its local background level; on the other hand, 1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113) was relatively uniform and not very different from background atmospheric level in non-urban areas. Among these compounds, HCFC-22, Halon-1211 and the halogenated compounds, CH2Cl2 and TCE, used as solvents were strongly enhanced. The average mixing ratio of Halon-1211 was higher than the local background of similar to 4.5 ppt by similar to 60% although Halon-1211 production had been phased out by 1996.

Hourly average mixing ratios of halocarbons (HCFC-22, CFC-12, Halon-1211, CFC-11, CH2Cl2, and TCE) illustrated a distinct diurnal cycle characterized with a pattern of elevated mixing ratio and large mixing ratio variability amplitude at night relative to that in daytime. Although emission sources of these halocarbons were complex, hourly average mixing ratios for most of these high variability halocarbons peaked at similar to 5:00 AM when the hourly average wind speed reached the minimum value of the day; by contrast, the hourly average mixing ratio of CO peaked at similar to 8:30 AM when the ambient atmospheric wind condition was strongly influenced by sea breezes during the traffic rush hours. This phenomenon revealed that meteorological factors predominated the distribution of halocarbon mixing ratio in the urban atmosphere and the traffic emission of CFC-12 derived from old vehicles manufactured before 1994 was insignificant to the CFC-12 mixing ratio in the urban atmosphere. The meteorological condition of nighttime atmospheric temperature inversion and low wind speed facilitated the accumulation of terrestrial airborne pollutants near the ground; consequently the hourly average mixing ratios at night were higher than those in daytime by up to similar to 2% (CFC-11), similar to 7% (CFC-12), similar to 75% (HCFC-22), similar to 72% (Halon-1211), similar to 280% (CH2Cl2), and similar to 155% (TCE). (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 
Halocarbons; CFC replacements; Diurnal variability; Enhancement; Lukang