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Journal Article 
Understanding particles emitted from spray and wall-guided gasoline direct injection and flex fuel vehicles operating on ethanol and iso-butanol gasoline blends 
Short, D; Vu, D; Chen, V; Espinoza, C; Berte, T; Karavalakis, G; Durbin, TD; Asa-Awuku, A 
Aerosol Science and Technology
ISSN: 0278-6826
EISSN: 1521-7388 
is supplemented by 3554428 Supplemental information:
Traffic-related pollutants are an ever-growing concern. However, the composition of particle emissions from new vehicle technologies using relevant current and prospective fuel blends is not known. This study tested four current and up-and-coming vehicle technologies with nine fuel blends with various concentrations of ethanol and iso-butanol. Vehicles were driven on both the federal test procedure (FTP) and the unified cycle (UC). Additional tests were conducted under steady-state speed conditions. The vehicle technologies include spray-guided gasoline direct injection (SG-GDI), wall-guided gasoline direct injection (WG-GDI), port-fuel injection flex fuel vehicle (PFI-FFV), and a wall-guided GDI-FFV. The fuels consisted of 10–83% ethanol and 16–55% iso-butanol in gasoline. The composition of soot, water-insoluble mass (WIM), water-soluble organic mass, and water-insoluble organic mass (WIOM), and OM was measured. The majority of emissions over FTP and UC were water-insoluble (>70%), and WIOM contributes mostly to OM. PFIs have lower soot and particulate matter (PM) emissions in comparison to the WG-GDI technology even while increasing the renewable fuel content. SG-GDI technology, which has not penetrated the market, show promise as soot and PM emissions are comparable to PFI vehicles while preserving the GDI fuel economy benefits. The WIM fraction in GDI-FFV consistently increased with increasing ethanol concentration. Lastly, the impact of the future vehicle emissions and traffic pollutants is discussed. SG-GDI technology is found to be a promising sustainable technology to enhance fuel economy and also reduce PM, soot, and WIM emissions. 
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