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Journal Article 
The effects of fluorine-contained molecules on improving the polymer solar cell by curing the anomalous S-shaped I-V curve 
Tseng, CA; Han, HC; Chong, CW; Chang, CC; Lin, CF; Wang, SB; Tseng, WH; Wu, CI; Lee, JH; Chang, SJ; Chen, KH; Chen, LC 
In this study, we investigate the effects of fluorinated poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) buffer layer on the performance of polymer photovoltaic cells. We demonstrate for the first time, the deterioration of the device performance can be effectively mended by modifying the interface between the active layer and buffer layer with heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetra-hydro-decyl trimethoxysilane (PFDS) and perfluorononane. Device performance shows a substantial enhancement of short-circuit current from 7.90 to 9.39 mA/cm(2) and fill factor from 27% to 53%. The overall device efficiency was improved from 0.98% to 3.12% for PFDS modified device. The mechanism of S-shape curing is also discussed. In addition, the stability of modified devices shows significant improvement than those without modification. The efficiency of the modified devices retains about half (1.88%) of its initial efficiency (4.1%) after 30 d compared to the unmodified ones (0.61%), under air atmosphere. 
• ^Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
     PFDS (335-77-3)
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