Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities of organic fractions from the Mediterranean brown seaweed Cystoseira sedoides
The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities of organic fractions from Cystoseira sedoides (Desfontaines) C. Agardh . Various fractions of C. sedoides (chloroform (F-CHCl(3)), ethyl acetate (F-AcOEt), and methanol (F-MeOH)) were screened for total phenol content, as well as antioxidant activity, using the stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and assays for determining the reducing power of these fractions. The anti-inflammatory properties of these fractions were assessed using the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model. The antiproliferative activity of C. sedoides fractions was evaluated on normal Madin-Darby canine kiney (MDCK), and fibroblast cells and on cancer cell lines (A549, MCF7, and HCT15), using the ability of the cells to metabolically reduce 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) formazan dyes. The F-CHCl(3) and F-AcOEt fractions showed significant total phenolic content at 55.09 and 61.30 mg gallic-acid equivalent/g dried sample, respectively. Using the DPPH method, the F-CHCl(3) and the F-AcOEt fractions exhibited the strongest radical scavenging activity, with IC(50) 120 µg/mL for F-CHCl(3) and 121 µg/mL for F-AcOEt, which approaches the activity of the powerful antioxidant standard, Trolox (IC(50) = 90 µg/mL). The reducing power of the samples was in the following order: F-AcOEt > F-CHCl(3 ) > F-MeOH fraction. The F-CHCl(3) and F-AcOEt fractions of C. sedoides tested at different doses (25 and 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p)), exhibited a dose-dependent reduction of rat paw oedema. The percentage of inhibition of oedema, 3 h after carrageenan injection, ranged from 67.71% to 73.49% and from 67.74% to 74.58%, for F-CHCl(3) and F-AcOEt, respectively. Their effects are comparable with that of lysine acetylsalicylate (300 mg/kg body mass; i.p.), which is used as a reference drug with the ability to inhibit oedema by 66.14%. Our results revealed that the F-CHCl(3) and F-AcOEt fractions from C. sedoides showed important antiproliferative properties towards all of the cancer cell lines studied here, as judged by their IC(50) values, which ranged from 52.6 to 66.5 µg/mL for A549; 22.4 to 70.2 µg/mL for MCF7, and 250.6 to 255.3 µg/mL for HCT15. Moreover, no visible destruction or alteration of normal cells was observed, even at 500 µg/mL F-CHCl(3) or F-AcOEt. These results suggest that C. sedoides fractions might be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor agents. The purification and determination of the chemical structures of the compounds in these active fractions are under investigation. The results could provide a compound(s) with a promising role in future medicines and nutrition, when used either as a drug or a dietary supplement.