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1289801 
Journal Article 
Quantitative determination of perfluorochemicals in sediments and domestic sludge 
Higgins, CP; Field, JA; Criddle, CS; Luthy, RG 
2005 
Yes 
Environmental Science and Technology
ISSN: 0013-936X
EISSN: 1520-5851 
39 
11 
3946-3956 
English 
Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) are the subject of increasingly intense environmental research. Despite their detection both in biota and in aqueous systems, little attention has been paid to the possible presence of this class of compounds in solid environmental matrixes. The limited available data indicate that some PFCs such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) may strongly sorb to solids, and sewage sludge is widely suspected as a major sink of PFCs entering municipal waste streams. A quantitative analytical method was developed that consists of liquid solvent extraction of the analytes from sediments and sludge, cleanup via solid-phase extraction, and injection of the extracts with internal standards into a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer (LC/MS/MS). The limits of detections of the method were analyte and matrix dependent, but ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 ng/g and 0.041 to 0.246 ng/g (dry weight) for sludge and sediment, respectively. A demonstration of the method was performed by conducting a limited survey of domestic sludge and sediments. The concentration of PFCs in domestic sludge ranged from 5 to 152 ng/g for total perfluorocarboxylates and 55 to 3370 ng/g for total perfluoroalkyl sulfonyl-based chemicals. Data from a survey of San Francisco Bay Area sediments suggest widespread occurrence of PFCs in sediments at the low ng/g to sub-ng/g level. Furthermore, substances that may be transformed to PFOS, such as 2-(N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamido) acetic acid (N-EtFOSAA) and 2-(N-methylperfluorooctanesulfonamido) acetic acid (N-MeFOSAA), are present in both sediments and sludge at levels often exceeding PFOS. 
• NEtFOSAA
     Literature Search
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• NMeFOSAA
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          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
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• ^Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
     PFOSA (754-91-6)
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               Pubmed
     NEtFOSAA (2991-50-6)
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               WOS
     NMeFOSAA (2355-31-9)
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               Pubmed
               WOS
• PFOSA
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          Pubmed
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic