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Technical Report 
Clinical toxicities of domestic and wild caged birds 
Feldman, BF; Kruckenberg, SM 
653-673; 1975 
PESTAB. For caged domestic birds, strychnine saturated, plain canary seed, used to poison mice, is a readily available and attractive source of food for domestic birds. Arsenic, used as an ant poison, herbicide, insecticide, and mouse and rat bait is also accessible to birds. Lead salts present in insecticides are also linked to bird poisonings. Lead compounds and arsenic compounds are used as insecticides and herbicides. Birds affected by household spray insecticides containing chlorinated hydrocarbons became ill about 48 hr after initial usage. Organic phosphorus compounds have caused muscle tremors. In cases of caged wild birds, pesticide contamination of the natural environment of these birds heads the list. Halogenated hydrocarbon insecticides such as DDT are potent stimulators of drug and steroid sex hormone metabolism in mammals and in birds. The breakdown of sex hormones may explain in part the devastating effect of DDT on reproduction in some bird populations. Actidione or cyclohexamide, a fungicide, causes goose-stepping, ataxia, polydipsia, wing drop or wings crossed high over the back, wing shivers, periodic falling, and prostration in mallards. Chlordane, 2,4-D, DDVP, gophacide, heptochlor, lindane, malathion, nicotine sulfate, rotenone, sevin, sodium arsenate, sodium monofluoracetate, and strychnine all produce toxicity in wild birds. Mercurials used as fungicides and seed disinfectants caused ataxia, ataraxia, low carriage, hunching up with feathers, wing drop, neck pulled in, blinking, dyspnea, and immobility. Representative data related to food consumption and body weights of differerent species and ages of birds is needed. 
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