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Journal Article 
Development of an inhalation unit risk factor for hexavalent chromium 
Haney, JT; Erraguntla, N; Sielken, RL; Valdez-Flores, C 
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
ISSN: 0273-2300
EISSN: 1096-0295 
A unit risk factor (URF) was developed for hexavalent chromium (CrVI). The URF is based on excess lung cancer mortality in two key epidemiological studies of chromate production workers. The Crump et al. (2003) study concerns the Painesville, OH worker cohort, while Gibb et al. (2000) regards the Baltimore, MD cohort. A supporting assessment was also performed for a cohort from four low-dose chromate plants (Leverkusen and Uerdingen, Germany, Corpus Christi, TX, Castle Hayne, NC). For the Crump et al. (2003) study, grouped observed and expected number of lung cancer mortalities along with cumulative CrVI exposures were used to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate and asymptotic variance of the slope (β) for the linear multiplicative relative risk model using Poisson regression modeling. For the Gibb et al. (2000) study, Cox proportional hazards modeling was performed with optimal exposure lag and adjusting for the effect of covariates (e.g., smoking) to estimate β values. Life-table analyses were used to develop URFs for each of the two key studies, as well as for supporting and related studies. The two key study URFs were combined using weighting factors relevant to confidence to derive the final URF for CrVI of 2.3E-03 per μgCrVI/m(3). 
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