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Journal Article 
Substantial convection and precipitation enhancements by ultrafine aerosol particles 
Fan, J; Rosenfeld, D; Zhang, Y; Giangrande, SE; Li, Z; Machado, LAT; Martin, ST; Yang, Y; Wang, J; Artaxo, P; Barbosa, HMJ; Braga, RC; Comstock, JM; Feng, Z; Gao, W; Gomes, HB; Mei, F; Pöhlker, C; Pöhlker, ML; Pöschl, U; de Souza, RAF 
ISSN: 0036-8075
EISSN: 1095-9203 
Aerosol-cloud interactions remain the largest uncertainty in climate projections. Ultrafine aerosol particles smaller than 50 nanometers (UAP<50) can be abundant in the troposphere but are conventionally considered too small to affect cloud formation. Observational evidence and numerical simulations of deep convective clouds (DCCs) over the Amazon show that DCCs forming in a low-aerosol environment can develop very large vapor supersaturation because fast droplet coalescence reduces integrated droplet surface area and subsequent condensation. UAP<50from pollution plumes that are ingested into such clouds can be activated to form additional cloud droplets on which excess supersaturation condenses and forms additional cloud water and latent heating, thus intensifying convective strength. This mechanism suggests a strong anthropogenic invigoration of DCCs in previously pristine regions of the world. 
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