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Journal Article 
Angle-resolved molecular beam scattering of NO at the gas-liquid interface 
Zutz, A; Nesbitt, DJ 
Journal of Chemical Physics
ISSN: 0021-9606
EISSN: 1089-7690 
This study presents first results on angle-resolved, inelastic collision dynamics of thermal and hyperthermal molecular beams of NO at gas-liquid interfaces. Specifically, a collimated incident beam of supersonically cooled NO (2Π1/2, J = 0.5) is directed toward a series of low vapor pressure liquid surfaces ([bmim][Tf2N], squalane, and PFPE) at θinc = 45(1)°, with the scattered molecules detected with quantum state resolution over a series of final angles (θs = -60°, -30°, 0°, 30°, 45°, and 60°) via spatially filtered laser induced fluorescence. At low collision energies [Einc = 2.7(9) kcal/mol], the angle-resolved quantum state distributions reveal (i) cos(θs) probabilities for the scattered NO and (ii) electronic/rotational temperatures independent of final angle (θs), in support of a simple physical picture of angle independent sticking coefficients and all incident NO thermally accommodating on the surface. However, the observed electronic/rotational temperatures for NO scattering reveal cooling below the surface temperature (Telec < Trot < TS) for all three liquids, indicating a significant dependence of the sticking coefficient on NO internal quantum state. Angle-resolved scattering at high collision energies [Einc = 20(2) kcal/mol] has also been explored, for which the NO scattering populations reveal angle-dependent dynamical branching between thermal desorption and impulsive scattering (IS) pathways that depend strongly on θs. Characterization of the data in terms of the final angle, rotational state, spin-orbit electronic state, collision energy, and liquid permit new correlations to be revealed and investigated in detail. For example, the IS rotational distributions reveal an enhanced propensity for higher J/spin-orbit excited states scattered into near specular angles and thus hotter rotational/electronic distributions measured in the forward scattering direction. Even more surprisingly, the average NO scattering angle (⟨θs⟩) exhibits a remarkably strong correlation with final angular momentum, N, which implies a linear scaling between net forward scattering propensity and torque delivered to the NO projectile by the gas-liquid interface. 
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