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Journal Article 
Mass balance source apportionment modeling of indoor air pollution exposures during the ethiopian coffee ceremony 
Keil, C; Coleman, Q; Brown, A; Kassa, H 
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
ISSN: 1545-9624
EISSN: 1545-9632 
Mass balance modeling was used to apportion previously measured carbon monoxide and respirable particle exposures of women preparing coffee during Ethiopian coffee ceremonies. The coffee ceremony generates smoke indoors from the use of charcoal and incense. This creates inhalation exposures, particularly for the women preparing the coffee. Understanding the health risks associated with this practice will be improved with knowledge of the relative contribution to combustion byproduct exposures from the different sources. Source fingerprints were developed in the laboratory for carbon monoxide and respirable particle emissions from charcoal and incense. A mass balance model determined that the majority of the carbon monoxide exposures were from charcoal use and that the respirable particle exposures were approximately half from incense and half from charcoal. Efforts to decrease health risks from these exposures must be directed by Ethiopian cultural stakeholders who understand the exposure conditions, the health risks, and the societal context. 
mass balance model; smoke exposure; exposure modeling; Ethiopia