An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer was deployed at five urban schools to examine spatial and temporal variability of organic aerosols (OA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) used for the first time in the Southern Hemisphere to apportion the sources of the OA across an urban area. The sources identified included hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA). At all sites, the main source was OOA, which accounted for 62-73% of the total OA mass and was generally more oxidized compared to those reported in the Northern Hemisphere. This suggests that there are differences in aging processes or regional sources in the two hemispheres. Unlike HOA and BBOA, OOA demonstrated instructive temporal variations but not spatial variation across the urban area. Application of cluster analysis to the PMF-derived sources offered a simple and effective method for qualitative comparison of PMF sources that can be used in other studies.