Nose is the first portion of the respiratory system into contact with air pollution particles, including organic compounds that could act as endocrine releasers. The objective was to identify and quantify estrogenic receptor-β (ERβ), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, and mucus profile in the nasal epithelium of mice. BALB/c mice male (n = 32) and female (n = 82) in proestrus, estrus and diestrus were divided into two groups: 1) exposed to ambient air; 2) concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) to achieve an accumulated dose (concentration vs. time product) of 600 μg/m(3), the time of the exposure was controlled to ensure the same concentration for all groups (5 days per week for 40-51 days). RT-PCR (Erβ-1, Erβ-2, Ahr, Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1), immunohistochemistry and morphometry (ERβ, AhR) were used to analyze. The mucus profiles were examined using acid (Alcian Blue) and neutral (periodic acid Schiff's) stains. Exposed females had significantly lower levels of Erβ-2 mRNA than exposed males (p = 0.036). Cyp1b1 mRNA in diestrus females was significantly lower in the CAP-exposed group compared with the ambient air group (p ≤ 0.05). ERβ expression in the epithelium and submucosa nucleus was lower in estrus exposed to CAPs compared with ambient air. CAPs increases AhR in the epithelium (p = 0.044) and submucosa (p = 0.001) nucleus of female when compared with male mice. Exposure to CAPs, also led to relatively increased acidic content in the mucus of males (p = 0.048), but decreased acidic content in that of females (p = 0.04). This study revealed sex-dependent responses to air pollution in the nasal epithelium that may partially explain the predisposition of females to airway respiratory diseases.