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Journal Article 
Urban lead poisoning and medical geology: An unfinished story 
Filippelli, GM; Laidlaw, MAS; Latimer, JC; Raftis, R 
Geological Society of America Today
ISSN: 1052-5173 
The intersection between geological sciences and human health, termed medical geology, is gaining significant interest as we understand more completely coupled biogeochemical systems. An example of a medical geology problem largely considered solved is that of lead (Pb) poisoning. With aggressive removal of the major sources of Pb to the environment, including Pb-based paint, leaded gasoline, and lead pipes and solder, the number of children in the United States affected by Pb poisoning has been reduced by 80%, down to a current level of 2.2%. In contrast to this national average, however, about 15% of urban children exhibit blood Pb levels above what has been deemed “safe” (10 μg per deciliter); most of these are children of low socioeconomic-status minority groups. We have analyzed the spatial relationship between Pb toxicity and metropolitan roadways in Indianapolis and conclude that Pb contamination in soils adjacent to roadways, the cumulative residue from the combustion of leaded gasoline, is being remobilized. Developing strategies to remove roadway Pb at the source is a matter of public health and social justice, and constitutes perhaps the final chapter in this particular story of medical geology. 
• ISA-Lead (2013 Final Project Page)
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     Atmospheric and Exposure Sciencies