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Journal Article 
Amphibian sublethal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances 
Abercrombie, SA; de Perre, C; Iacchetta, M; Flynn, RW; SepĂșlveda, MS; Lee, LS; Hoverman, JT 
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
ISSN: 0730-7268
EISSN: 1552-8618 
Studies of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) toxicity on amphibians, especially post metamorphosis, are limited. We examined effects of dermal PFAS exposure (30 d) on survival and growth of juvenile American toads (Anaxyrus americanus), eastern tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) and northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens). Exposures included perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTS) at 0, 80, 800, or 8000 ppb on a moss dry weight basis. Exposure to PFAS influenced final snout-vent length (SVL) and scaled mass index (SMI), a measure of relative body condition. Observed effects depended on species and chemical, but not concentration. Anurans exposed to PFOS, PFHxS (frogs only), and 6:2 FTS reduced SVL versus controls, while salamanders exposed to 6:2 FTS increased SVL. Frogs exposed to PFHxS and 6:2 FTS, and toads exposed to PFOS had increased SMI compared to controls, salamanders did not demonstrate effects. Concentrations of 6:2 FTS in substrate decreased substantially by 30 d, likely driven by microbial action. PFOS had notable biota-sediment accumulation factors, but still < 1. While a no-observable-effect concentration could not generally be determined, the lowest observable effect concentration was 50 - 120 ppb. Survival was not affected. Our work demonstrates that PFAS bioaccumulation from dermal exposures and sublethal effects are dependent on species, chemical, and focal trait. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. 
Index Medicus; salamanders; body burden; anurans; bioaccumulation 
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• PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
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