Animal inhalation studies on ammonia, ethylene glycol, formaldehyde, dimethylamine, and ethanol
Coon, RA; Jones, RA; Jenkins, LJ, Jr; Siegel, J
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Ammonia, ethylene glycol, formaldehyde, dimethylamine, and ethanol were tested for toxic effects by the inhalation route in rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, monkeys, and dogs during continuous or repeated exposures.
Repeated exposures at 155 mg/m3 of ammonia produced no adverse effects; at 770 mg/m3 there was ocular and nasal irritation in rabbits and dogs and nonspecific inflammatory changes in the lungs of rats and guinea pigs. Following continuous exposures at 40 mg/m3, nonspecific inflammatory changes were noted in the lungs; at 127 and 262 mg/m3 similar changes were seen in the lungs and kidneys. Continuous exposures at levels of 455 and 470 mg/m3 caused 90–98% mortality in rats, and marked eye irritation in rabbits and dogs.
Animals in repeated ethylene glycol exposures at 10 and 57 mg/m3 showed no changes that were considered to be chemically induced. Continuous exposure at 12 mg/m3 resulted in moderate to severe eye irritation in rabbits and corneal damage with apparent blindness in 2 of 15 rats after 8 days. Animals continuously exposed to 4.6 mg/m3 formaldehyde, 9 mg/m3 dimethylamine, and 86 mg/m3 ethanol showed only mild inflammatory changes, primarily in the lungs.
Aerosols; Amines/administration & dosage/toxicity; Ammonia/administration & dosage/toxicity; Animals; Blindness/chemically induced; Blood Cell Count; Cornea/drug effects; Enzymes/blood; Ethanol/administration & dosage/toxicity; Eye/drug effects; Formaldehyde/administration & dosage/toxicity; Glycols/administration & dosage/toxicity; Guinea Pigs; Haplorhini; Kidney/drug effects; Lung/drug effects; Nose/drug effects; Rabbits; 50-00-0; 64-17-5; 7664-41-7