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Journal Article 
Molecular and phenotypic responses of male crucian carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid 
Dong, H; Lu, G; Yan, Z; Liu, J; Ji, Y 
Science of the Total Environment
ISSN: 0048-9697
EISSN: 1879-1026 
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has long been produced and widely used due to its excellent water and oil repellent properties. However, this trend has facilitated to the ubiquitous existence of PFOA in environmental matrix, and the potential ecotoxicity on aquatic organisms has not been fully elucidated. To study the tissue-specific bioconcentration and the nervous system- and energy-related biochemical effects of PFOA, as well as the phenotypic alterations by this chemical, male crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were exposed to gradient concentrations of PFOA (nominal 0.2, 10, 500 and 25,000 μg/L) in a flow-through apparatus for 7 days. PFOA was enriched in tissues following an order of blood > kidney ≥ liver > gill > brain > muscle. The bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.1 to 60.4. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the fish brain was inhibited, while liver carboxylesterase was induced in most cases and attenuated with time. The acyl-CoA oxidase activity was dose-dependently elevated and accompanied by a decline of ATP contents. PFOA treatments also inhibited the activity of the electron transport system (ETS). At the transcriptional level, ETS component complexes II and IV were concordantly depressed, and ATP synthesis was also downregulated. The mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α was increasingly upregulated, with related downstream genes upregulated in varying degrees. The phenotypes showed patterns of increased liver pathology and reduced swimming activity. In summary, PFOA leads to adverse effects in Carassius auratus related to multiple aspects, which may be associated with the nervous system, fundamental energy metabolism and other unpredictable factors. The results obtained in this study are expected to help clarify the PFOA toxic mechanisms on energy relevance. 
PFOA; Bioconcentration; Biochemical responses; Histology; Behaviour; Carassius auratus 
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