Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from contaminated soil accumulates in higher organisms, and causes health risks to humans. In this research, 71 % of the PFOA was degraded, of which 51 % was decomposed into short chain by-products, 19 % mineralized, and 1 % volatilized with 30 kV of voltage, 50 Hz of discharge frequency, 1 % of soil moisture, 300 ppm of PFOA concentration and 6.3 of soil pH using pulsed positive discharge plasma. From a series of experiments, electrons were identified as the dominant active means of PFOA degradation. The decomposition by-products were analyzed by LC-MS. The results indicated that PFOA was decomposed into small by-products including perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA), pentafluoropropionic acid (PFPrA) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Moreover, in plasma treated soil, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen increased from less than 10 ppm-462 ppm, and the average dry weight of lettuce was 1.6 mg higher than that in natural soil. Additionally, Planctomycetes and Nitrospirae increased after treatment, indicating that plasma technology promotes the process of nitrogen cycle. Thus, PFOA polluted soil could be remediated using this pulse corona plasma technology, and simultaneously improve the fertility of soil without chemical injections.