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2851012 
Journal Article 
Simultaneous determination of perfluorinated compounds and their potential precursors in mussel tissue and fish muscle tissue and liver samples by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry 
Zabaleta, I; Bizkarguenaga, E; Prieto, A; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, M; Fernández, LA; Zuloaga, O 
2015 
Yes 
Journal of Chromatography A
ISSN: 0021-9673
EISSN: 1873-3778 
1387 
13-23 
English 
An analytical method for the simultaneous determination in fish liver and muscle tissue and mussel samples of 14 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including three perfluoroalkylsulfonates (PFSAs), seven perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), three perfluorophosphonic acids (PFPAs) and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), and 10 potential precursors, including four polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (PAPs), four fluorotelomer saturated acids (FTCAs) and two fluorotelomer unsaturated acids (FTUCAs), was developed in the present work. Different clean-up strategies by means of solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a mix-mode weak anion exchanger (WAX), reverse phase Envi-Carb or a combination of them was optimized and evaluated for the clean-up of focused ultrasonic solid-liquid (FUSLE) extracts before the analysis by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Mix-mode WAX coupled in-line to Envi-Carb was finally selected since it rendered the cleanest extracts and minimum matrix effect. The FUSLE-SPE-LC-MS/MS methodology was validated in terms of recovery, precision and method detection limits (MDLs). Apparent recovery values in the 65-116%, 59-119% and 67-126% range and MDLs in the 0.1-2.7 ng/g, 0.1-3.8 ng/g and 0.2-3.1ng/g range were obtained for liver, mussel and fish muscle tissue samples, respectively. The method developed was applied to the analysis of grey mullet liver (Chelon labrosus) and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) samples from the Basque Coast (North of Spain) and Yellowfin tuna muscle tissue (Thunnus albacares) samples from the Indian Ocean. To the best of our knowledge this is the first method that describes the simultaneous determination of 14 PFCs and 10 potential precursors in fish liver, fish muscle tissue and mussel samples. Besides, this is the first time that 8:2 monosubstituted polyfluorodecyl phosphate (8:2 monoPAP) and 8:2 disubstituted polyfluorodecyl phosphate (8:2 diPAP) were detected in mussel and tuna samples, respectively. 
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances; Mix mode wax; Envi-Carb; Fish muscle; PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONIC-ACID; FRESH-WATER FISH; CARBOXYLIC-ACIDS; DRINKING-WATER; POLYFLUOROALKYL PHOSPHATES; AQUATIC ORGANISMS; PHOSPHONIC-ACIDS; ALKYL SUBSTANCES; HUMAN EXPOSURE; RAINBOW-TROUT 
PFAS
• 6:2/8:2 diPAP
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• 6:2 diPAP
     Literature Search
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• 8:2 diPAP
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• 8:2 monoPAP
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• FtOH 8:2
     Literature Search
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• ^Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
     PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
          Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
               WOS
     PFOSA (754-91-6)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     FtOH 8:2 (678-39-7)
          Literature Search
               WOS
     6:2 diPAP (57677-95-9)
          Literature Search
               WOS
     8:2 monoPAP (57678-03-2)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     8:2 diPAP (678-41-1)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     6:2/8:2 diPAP (943913-15-3)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
• PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
     Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Literature Search Update (2013-2019)
          WOS
• PFOSA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic