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Journal Article 
Field-scale evaluation of the uptake of Perfluoroalkyl substances from soil by rice in paddy fields in South Korea 
Kim, H; Ekpe, OD; Lee, JH; Kim, DH; Oh, JE 
Science of the Total Environment
ISSN: 0048-9697
EISSN: 1879-1026 
The concentrations of 17 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in paddy soil, void water, and brown rice collected from 30 paddy fields to examine the uptake of PFASs from soil by rice. The total concentrations of PFASs ranged from 7.76 to 3020 ng/L (average = 166 ng/L) in void water, 0.120 to 13.9 ng/g dry-weight (dw) (1.92 ng/g dw) in paddy soils, and from not-detected to 1.85 ng/g (0.403 ng/g) in brown rice samples. The highest PFAS concentrations were observed in brown rice cultivated in a paddy field where high levels of PFASs were observed in void water and paddy soil. Among target PFAS compounds, perfluorocarboxylic acids were dominant and detected in all matrices, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the most predominant compound in brown rice and void water. Significant positive correlations were examined for some detected PFASs between each matrix. PFOA in brown rice was positively correlated with PFOA in void water as well as perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in paddy soil (p < 0.01). PFOA in void water also had correlated with PFDA in paddy soil. However, there was no correlation of other compounds between each matrix, except for correlations of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and PFDA in paddy soil with those in void water, respectively (p < 0.05). Moreover, PFOA concentration in brown rice (0.093 ng/g) was much higher than one in white rice detected with a non-detectable level. 
Caprylates; Decanoic Acids; Fluorocarbons; Soil Pollutants; perfluorodecanoic acid; 335-76-2; perfluorooctanoic acid; 947VD76D3L; Index Medicus; Void water; Brown rice; Field study; Agriculture; Republic of Korea; Environmental Monitoring; Soil Pollutants -- metabolism; Fluorocarbons -- metabolism; Oryza -- metabolism; Soil -- chemistry 
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