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Journal Article 
Assessing differences in toxicity and teratogenicity of three phthalates, Diethyl phthalate, Di-n-propyl phthalate, and Di-n-butyl phthalate, using Xenopus laevis embryos 
Gardner, ST; Wood, AT; Lester, R; Onkst, PE; Burnham, N; Perygin, DH; Rayburn, J 
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues
ISSN: 1528-7394
EISSN: 1087-2620 
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2016; 79(2):71-82. [Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A] 
Phthalates, compounds used to add flexibility to plastics, are ubiquitous in the environment. In particular, the diethyl (DEP), di-n-propyl (DnPP), and di-n-butyl (DBP) phthalates were found to exert detrimental effects in both mammalian and non-mammalian studies, with toxic effects varying according to alkyl chain length. Embryos of Xenopus laevis, the African clawed frog, have been used to assess toxicity and teratogenicity of several compounds and serves as a model for assessing adverse and teratogenic effects of ortho-phthalate esters. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for comparison of developmentally toxic effects of ortho-phthalate esters using Xenopus embryos. In this study developing Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed to increasing concentrations of DEP, DnPP, and DBP using the 96-h Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX), with 96-h lethal concentrations, effective concentrations to induce malformations, teratogenic indices, and concentrations to inhibit growth determined. DEP, DnPP, and DBP showed enhanced toxicity with increasing ester length. Developing Xenopus laevis exposed to DEP, DnPP, and DBP showed similar malformations that also occurred at lower concentrations with increasing alkyl chain length. Teratogenic risk did not change markedly with alkyl chain length, with data showing only DBP to be teratogenic. 
Phthalic Acids; Teratogens; Dibutyl Phthalate; 2286E5R2KE; di-n-propylphthalate; 8USP5Y77SS; diethyl phthalate; UF064M00AF; Index Medicus; Abnormalities, Drug-Induced -- pathology; Animals; Embryonic Development -- drug effects; Xenopus laevis; Embryo, Nonmammalian; Structure-Activity Relationship; Lethal Dose 50; Dibutyl Phthalate -- toxicity; Phthalic Acids -- toxicity; Teratogens -- toxicity 
• Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)
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• Diethyl phthalate (DEP)
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