Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Print Feedback Export to File
789380 
Journal Article 
Review 
Monitoring phthalate exposure in humans 
Latini, G 
2005 
Yes 
Clinica Chimica Acta
ISSN: 0009-8981
EISSN: 1873-3492 
361 
1-2 
20-29 
English 
The dialkyl- or alkyl/aryl esters of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, commonly known as phthalates, are high-production-volume synthetic chemicals and ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate in the environment. Humans are exposed to these compounds through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposure for their whole lifetime, since the intrauterine life. Public and scientific concern has increased in recent years about the potential health risks associated with exposure to phthalates. The main focus has moved away from the hepatotoxic effects to the endocrine disrupting potency of these chemicals. To date, although the consistent toxicologic data on phthalates is suggestive, information on sources and pathways of human exposure to phthalates is limited. Recently, exposure to phthalates has been assessed by analyzing urine for their metabolites. This approach is contrary to the determination of the parent phthalates in air, water and foodstuff and not subject to contamination. Furthermore, these metabolites and the parent phthalates are considered the toxic species. However, accurate methods and models for measuring the amount of phthalates absorbed by the various pathways of exposure have to be developed. In fact, a frequent biological monitoring of phthalates in body fluids and tissues would be highly advisable, both in helping physicians to perform health risk assessments for exposure in the general population and in guiding governments to provide regulations concerning the maximum allowed concentrations in the environment, plasticized products, medications and medical equipment. 
Animals; Environmental Exposure/analysis; Environmental Monitoring; Humans; Phthalic Acids/ administration & dosage/ analysis/pharmacokinetics/toxicity; Risk Factors 
• Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)
     Database Searches
          Web of Science
     LitSearch Nov 2012
          WOS
          Merged reference set
     Secondary Literature
          Reviews and Editorials
• Diisononyl Phthalate (DINP)
     Literature Search
          LitSearch May 2013
               Web of Science
     Excluded: No Primary Data on Health Effects
          Measurement methods
• Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies
     Source – all searches
          Pubmed
          WOS
          Toxnet
     Excluded
     Source – no date limit through June 2013 (Private)
          Pubmed
          WOS
          ToxNet