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2325318 
Journal Article 
Determination of polyfluoroalkyl compounds in water and suspended particulate matter in the river Elbe and North Sea, Germany 
Ahrens, L; Plassmann, M; Xie, Z; Ebinghaus, R 
2009 
Yes 
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering in China
ISSN: 1673-7415
EISSN: 1673-7520 
Gaodeng Jiaoyu Chubanshe (Higher Education Press), 4 Dewai Dajie Beijing 100011 China 
152-170 
The distribution of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in the dissolved and particulate phase and their discharge from the river Elbe into the North Sea were studied. The PFCs quantified included C4-C8 perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTS), C6 and C8 perfluorinated sulfinates (PFSiAs), C4-C12 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoro-3,7-dimethyl-octanoic acid (3,7m2-PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), and n-ethyl perfluroctane sulfonamidoethanol (EtFOSE). PFCs were mostly distributed in the dissolved phase, where perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dominated with 2.9--12.5 ng/L. In the suspended particulate matter FOSA and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) showed the highest concentrations (4.0 ng/L and 2.3 ng/L, respectively). The total flux of capital sigma PFCs from the river Elbe was estimated to be 802 kg/year for the dissolved phase and 152 kg/year for the particulate phase. This indicates that the river Elbe acts as a source of PFCs into the North Sea. However, the concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) in the North Sea were higher than that in the river Elbe, thus an alternative source must exist for these compounds. 
polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs); perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA); surface water; water-particulate partitioning 
PFAS
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